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Output and Energy: An International Analysis

This paper analyzes the relationship between GNP per capita and energy consumption per capita for 43 market economies during the years 1978, 1979, and 1980. Several functional forms are analyzed. Specification tests establish that a double logarithmic equation is preferable to all others. Statistical estimates further indicate a distinct pattern of diminishing real income response to greater per capita energy consumption. Advanced economies with relatively low-cost energy (Canada, Norway, the U.S.A.) exhibit practically identical per capita incomes as industrialized nations with higher-cost energy (Sweden, France, and the Federal Republic of Germany).

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Energy Specializations: Energy and the Economy – Energy as a Productive Input; Energy and the Economy –Economic Growth and Energy Demand; Energy and the Economy – Resource Endowments and Economic Performance; Energy and the Economy – Energy Shocks and Business Cycles

JEL Codes: Q40: Energy: General, Q42: Alternative Energy Sources

Keywords: GNP per capita, Energy consumption per capita, Output, Energy intensity, International analysis

DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol10-No3-1

Published in Volume 10, Number 3 of the bi-monthly journal of the IAEE's Energy Economics Education Foundation.


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