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Cross-border Effects of Capacity Remuneration Schemes in Interconnected Markets: Who is Free-riding?

Xavier Lambin and Thomas-Olivier Léautier

Year: 2019
Volume: Volume 40
Number: Number 6
DOI: 10.5547/01956574.40.6.xlam
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We study the welfare impacts of domestic support schemes for generation capacity when energy markets are interconnected. We find that if transmission system operators (TSOs) can't reduce export capacity and neighbors stay energy-only, a capacity market is ineffective unless transmission capacity is small. If TSOs can reduce export capacity, the capacity market attracts investments and Security of Supply (SoS) of non-domestic markets shrink. A neighboring energy-only or strategic reserve market will thus be prejudiced in the long-run and may have to implement a capacity market as well in order to meet its SoS standard. Hence, capacity markets may spread in Europe thanks to their negative cross-border effect on investment incentives. This is in sharp contrast with the conventional wisdom, based on short-term arguments, that energy-only markets will free-ride the SoS provided by neighboring capacity markets. Our conclusions urge for the harmonization of capacity remuneration schemes across Europe.

Risk-adjusted Social Discount Rates

Frédéric Cherbonnier and Christian Gollier

Year: 2022
Volume: Volume 43
Number: Number 4
DOI: 10.5547/01956574.43.4.fche
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When evaluating public and private investment projects, those that contribute more to the collective risk should be more penalized through an upward adjustment of their discount rate. This paper shows how to estimate the risk-adjusted discount rate for different projects, with applications to the electricity sector. Using the standard framework of consumer theory, we express any investment project's beta in terms of the easier-to-measure price and income elasticities of the goods generated by the project. When considering an investment in production capacity, the beta has a flat term structure, and is positive (negative) for normal (inferior) goods. When considering core infrastructures carrying goods or services, such as energy transmission and distribution assets, the beta has a decreasing term structure with very high values at short horizons for infrastructures facing capacity constraints. We provide a real-case example of a cross-border electricity connection with negative beta for the exporting country.

Distributed Renewable Energy Investment: The Effect of Time-of-Use Pricing

Lu-Miao Li, Peng Zhou, and Wen Wen

Year: 2023
Volume: Volume 44
Number: Number 5
DOI: 10.5547/01956574.44.5.luli
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This paper examines the effects of time-of-use (TOU) pricing on distributed renewable energy (DRE) investment for a non-power generating firm. We develop an electricity consumption cost-minimization model by considering the intermittent generation as well as the firm's electricity consumption. It has been found that implementing full retail prices compensation for the surplus renewable electricity is probably not good as it may lead to DRE over-investment. Moreover, we find that the firm's optimal investment strategy is not necessarily sensitive to the price signal of TOU pricing (i.e., the ratio of peak to off-peak price). Particularly, when the service-level difference in meeting a firm's electricity consumption between peak and off-peak periods by adopting DRE technology is above a critical threshold in relation to the peak time, a strong price signal will not promote the firm's optimal DRE capacity investment. This paper yields a policy insight that "getting the time right" may be more important than "getting the price right" in terms of enabling DRE investment for TOU pricing design.

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